Photo by K W Reinsch/Flickr (Creative Commons)
Of all the descriptions I've been reading lately of the 1.5 generation, immigrants who arrived in the U.S. as children or adolescents, there's one that especially resonates as I prepare for a related panel tonight, applying to a far broader group than those it originally described.
In a 1988 study of young Southeast Asian refugees in San Diego, conducted then for the federal Office of Refugee Resettlement, sociologists Rubén Rumbaut and Kenji Ima described what they alternately termed the "one-and-a-half generation" and the 1.5 generation. Substitute the word "immigrants" for "refugees" and what they wrote can apply to anyone who has grown up as a young immigrant, adapting to a new life chosen not by them, but their parents. The description:
These respondents are members of what we'll call the "1.5" generation: that is, they are neither part of the "first" generation of their parents, the responsible adults who were formed in the homeland, who made the fateful decision to leave it and to flee as refugees to an uncertain exile in the United States, and who are this defined by the consequences of that decision and by the need to justify it; nor are these youths part of the "second" generation of children who are born in the U.S., and for whom the "homeland" mainly exists as a representation consisting of parental memories and memorabilia, even though their ethnicity may remain well defined.
Rather, the refugee youths in our study constitute a distinctive cohort; they are those young people who were born in their countries of origin but formed in the U.S. (that is, they are completing their education in the U.S. during the key formative periods of adolescence and early adulthood); they were not the main protagonists of the decision to leave and hence are less beholden to their parents' attitudes (e.g., they may be "freer" and more "objective" to forge a new modus vivendi in the U.S. with less of the pressure for self-justification required of the "first" generation); and they are in many ways marginal to both the new and old worlds, for while they straddle both worlds they are in some profound sense fully part of neither of them.
Though they differ greatly from each other in cultural and social class origins, and in many other respects as well, they generally share a common psychohistorical location in terms of their age and their migration status/role, and in terms of developing bicultural strategies of response and adjustment to that unique position which they occupy as "1.5ers" - in the interstices, as it were, of two societies and cultures, between the first and second generation, and between being "refugees" and being "ethnics" (or hyphenated "Americans").
The "fateful decision" taken by the parents is, of course, a prominent part of the experience for young undocumented 1.5s in the United States, a subject we'll also be tackling during the discussion tonight at KPCC's Crawford Family Forum in Pasadena.
I'll be joined by Cal Poly Pomona sociologist and author Mary Yu Danico, UCLA Chicana/o Studies professor Leisy Abrego and by Dennis Arguelles, director of program development for Search To Involve Pilipino Americans (SIPA). Three out of the four of us (me included) are 1.5ers ourselves. Among other things, we’ll be talking about how the 1.5 experience has shaped those of us who live it in terms of how we identify, how we speak, how we marry, even how we vote. Audience members will form part of the discussion and share their stories, too.
It starts at 7 p.m. and admission is free, but an RSVP is required. Reserve a seat here.