Many legal observers believe the court may curtail, or even eliminate, the ability of public and private colleges and universities to employ racial and ethnic preferences in admissions.
The Fisher vs. University of Texas case may have important consequences for California, which banned affirmative action in 1996, but has seen several attempts to overturn it.
Whenever the affirmative-action debate comes up, the question is often: Are race based admissions fair? Do they work?
For years, UCLA law professor Richard Sander has been looking into these questions.
He's co-author of a new book called "Mismatch: How Affirmative Action Hurts Students Its Intended To Help And Why Universities Won't Admit It." He joins us now from the Supreme Court.