Arne Duncan, who followed President Barack Obama to Washington to serve as his education secretary, announced Friday he will step down following a seven-year tenure marked by a willingness to plunge head-on into the heated debate about the government's role in education.
One of the longest-serving Cabinet members, Duncan is among the few who have formed close personal relationships with the president. After his departure in December, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack will be the sole member of Obama's Cabinet still in his original role.
Duncan said he planned to return to Chicago, where his family is living, with his future plans uncertain.
In an unconventional move, Obama asked John King Jr., a senior Education Department official, to oversee the Education Department.
Duncan's tenure coincided with a roiling debate about perceived federal overreach into schools that remains a potent issue as he leaves office. Navigating a delicate divide, Duncan sought to use the federal government's leverage to entice states to follow Washington's preferred approach to higher standards, prompting resistance from all sides.
On the right, Republicans and state leaders accused Duncan of a heavy-handed federal approach that sidestepped lawmakers and enforced top-down policies on local schools. Critics blasted the department for linking federal dollars to state adoption of standards such as the Common Core, a controversial set of curriculum guidelines. His signature initiative was Race to the Top, in which states competed for federal grants, with strings attached.
On the left, Duncan clashed over policy with teachers' unions, including the largest, the 275,000-member National Education Association, which once called on Duncan to resign. Traditionally reliable Democratic allies, labor leaders bristled at his strong support for charter schools and the use of student test scores to evaluate teachers.
Throughout his tenure, Duncan stood firmly behind federal standardized testing requirements, even as he readily handed out waivers exempting states from George W. Bush-era requirements under No Child Left Behind. Duncan cast the federal testing as a civil rights issue, critical to making school ensure that students of all races and backgrounds succeed. The Education Department pointed to statistics showing the high school graduation rate under Duncan hit a new high of 81 percent.
Occasionally flashing impatience with criticism, Duncan raised eyebrows in 2014 when he cast opponents as "white suburban moms who — all of a sudden — their child isn't as brilliant as they thought they were." He later said he regretted the "clumsy phrasing."
Part of the Chicago cohort that converged on Washington after Obama's election, Duncan previously ran the Chicago public school system, although he never worked as a teacher. A basketball player who played professionally in Australia, Duncan was once a regular in Obama's weekend games.
"Arne Duncan was one of the president's best appointments," said Sen. Lamar Alexander, R-Tenn., who frequently clashed with Duncan as chairman of the Senate's education panel. He added that they disagreed on the issue of federal versus local control of schools.
In his previous role at the Education Department, King oversaw preschool through high school education and managed the department's operations. He served earlier as state education commissioner in New York.