It's cleared the way for vows in those states -- Virginia, Oklahoma, Utah, Wisconsin and Indiana.
But it's a bittersweet victory for gay marriage activists.
Many had hoped the high court would take on at least one of those cases to directly address the question of whether same-sex marriage is legal throughout the whole nation.
As it stands, this latest move continues to create a patchwork of states where gay marriage is legal in some, not in others, and sometimes recognized elsewhere.
Evan Wolfson, president of the group Freedom to Marry, says the Supreme Court should finish the job.